Tuesday, June 17, 2008

Right On Target

Fr. Z. at WDTPRS shows that Bishop Arthur Serratelli of Paterson, NJ, is accutely aware of the supreme importance regarding the translation of liturgical texts. The Bishop's letter is superb and succinct. He zeroes in on the crux of the matter and explains why accuracy to the authentic and typical Latin text is essential. He also underscores the invaluable treasure of having a dignified, reverent and edifying nomenclature.

Words are written and spoken symbols human beings use to convey ideas. While the literal interpretation of every word is not always or even usually the intent of the original author, the literal sense of the word is absolutely necessary. Hence, in the Bible when Jesus says "you are the salt of the earth" in Matthew 5:13, the sacred author is obviously using a metaphor since human beings are more than sodium chloride. Nevertheless, the literal sense, i.e., the exact idea conveyed by the word salt is necessary to understand the passage. If someone does not know what SALT is, then they cannot comprehend the metaphor. If the wrong word is used in place of salt, the idea is not accurately communicated. The Greek (halas) and Latin (sal) use the specific word salt. If a politically correct health-nut tampered with that translation, we might get something close but the inspired text is more precise.

When the Sacred Liturgy uses certain words in the typical Latin, it should be respected and accurately translated. Diluting the liturgy of theological terminology defies one of the purposes of worship, i.e., the teaching of doctrine. Adoring God is the primary object but since it is a public work done by the entire church, there are other effects of liturgy. Teaching the faith (doctrine) is one and living the faith (morality) is another. The prayers, gestures, symbols, et al. used in divine worship are there for a reason. They convey ideas and hopefully encourage, too. The faithful are given the grace and the INSTRUCTION to seek holiness by living lives in accord with the Divine Will. The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass gives proper worship to God AND it inspires us to aspire to become saints. It gives us the goal, the reason and the means to achieve it. United with the other sacraments and combined with the Magisterial teachings of the Church, the Sacred Liturgy encapsulates what and who we are, and where we are meant to go. If we avoid lofty language and remain on a strict diet of mundane, pedestrian idioms, then our minds will be robbed since language is meant to do more than just communicate, it also uplifts and inspires.

The Language of the Liturgy: The Value of the New Translations
In Act III, Scene II of The Tragedy of Hamlet, the young prince gives this advice: “Suit the action to the word, the word to the action.” Ever since the publication of the third edition of the Missale Romanum in 2000, translators have been grappling with the challenge of suiting the word to the liturgy. Translators working to provide a fresh translation of the liturgical texts face a number of challenges. Words, like people’s dress, change from one generation to the next and from one group to another in the same society. What one individual calls a “swamp,” another more ecologically conscious individual calls “wetlands.” A politician waxes eloquently about “public participation.” His audience understands him to say “self-denial.” The corporate world routinely uses the noun impact as a transitive verb. People follow happily along.

Today, politically correct as well as linguistically conscious individuals carefully circumvent the word “man” not to offend women. Past generations pronounced the word with never the slightest intention of excluding women. But times have changed. We speak now about humankind. Certainly, we have gained inclusivity. Yet, we have sacrificed language that is not so abstract.
English always has been an open language, ready to welcome neologisms. The Internet has enriched our speech with new phrases and words. Text messaging is altering our spelling and our syntax. Language is a human expression. As people change, so does the way they speak.
In his popular rhetorical guide, De duplici copia verborum ac rerum, Erasmus, the 16th century Dutch humanist and theologian, showed students 150 different styles they could use when phrasing the Latin sentence, Tuae literae me magnopere delectarunt (Your letter has delighted me very much). Clearly, no single translation of any sentence or work will ever completely satisfy everyone. Even the best of all possible translations of the new Missal will have its critics.
But there is something more at stake than pleasing individual tastes and preferences in the new liturgical translations. The new translations aim at a “language which is easily understandable, yet which at the same time preserves … dignity, beauty, and doctrinal precision” (Liturgiam Authenticam, 25). The new translations now being prepared are a marked improvement over the translations with which we have become familiar. They are densely theological. They respect the rich vocabulary of the Roman Rite. They carefully avoid the overuse of certain phrases and words.

The new translations also have a great respect for the style of the Roman Rite. Certainly, some sentences could be more easily translated to mimic our common speech. But they are not. And with reason. Latin orations, especially Post-Communions, tend to conclude strongly with a teleological or eschatological point. The new translations in English follow the sequence of these Latin prayers in order to end on a strong note. Many of our current translations of these prayers end weakly. Why should we strip the English translation of the distinctive theological emphases of the Latin text? A slightly non-colloquial word order can lead the listener to a greater attention to the point of the prayer.

Our present liturgical texts are framed in simple syntax. The new translations use more subordinate clauses. This, in and of itself, does not render them unproclaimable. By the very fact that, in some instances, the new translations require thoughtful and careful attention to pauses when speaking helps to foster and create a less rushed and more reverent way of praying. Not a small gain for a proper ars celebrandi.

The new translation at times may use uncommon words like “ineffable.” The word is not unspeakable! For sure, this word does not come from the street language of the contemporary individual. But, then, why cannot the liturgy use words that elevate the language from the street to the altar? People may not use certain words in their active vocabulary. This does not mean they will be baffled by their use in the liturgy. “If indeed, in the liturgical texts, words or expressions are sometimes employed which differ somewhat from usual and everyday speech, it is often enough by virtue of this very fact that the texts become truly memorable and capable of expressing heavenly realities” (Liturgiam Authenticam, 27).

Liturgical language should border on the poetic. Prose bumps along the ground. Poetry soars to the heavens. And our Liturgy is already a sharing of the Liturgy in heaven. The liturgical texts that we are now using are not perfect, but they are familiar. This familiarity makes celebrants at ease with the present texts. The new texts are better. When the new texts are implemented, they will require more attention on the part of the celebrant. But any initial uneasiness will yield to familiarity and to a language that is well suited to the Liturgy.
A language suited for the Liturgy: this is the one of great advantages of the work being done on the new translations. There is more to the Liturgy than the human language of any age or any one country. In the new translations of the Roman Missal, a conscious effort is being made to suit the human word to the divine action that the Liturgy truly is. As Pope Benedict XVI has said, the “central actio of the Mass is fundamentally neither that of the priest as such nor of the laity as such, but of Christ the High Priest: This action of God, which takes place through human speech, is the real "action" for which all creation is in expectation… This is what is new and distinctive about the Christian liturgy: God himself acts and does what is essential” (The Spirit of the Liturgy p. 173).

In his early work Enchiridion militis christiani, Erasmus states the obvious about human speech and the divine. He argues that words always fall short of their task of miming the Logos. Reaching back to Exodus 16, he argues that the smallness of the manna rained down on the Israelites "signifies the lowliness of speech that conceals immense mysteries in almost crude language.” Until the end of history, we must be content with imperfect language that will never fully unveil the divine mystery we celebrate. But the new translations, imperfect as they are — as all human speech will be —are good translations that have passed through the hands of many scholars and bishops. The language of the new texts, while not dummied down to the most common denominator, remains readily accessible to anyone. Most assuredly, these new translations of liturgical texts will help us better approach God with greater reverence and awe. We gladly await their final approval from the Holy See and their use in the Liturgy!

+ Bishop Arthur Serratelli

Sunday, June 15, 2008

traduttore tradittore

There is an old Italian proverb which says traduttore tradittore, i.e., the translator is a traitor. As the American bishops discuss and debate the latest translation of the Roman Missal, the old battle lines are renewed: FORMAL CORRESPONDENCE vs. DYNAMIC EQUIVALENCE. Fifteen years ago I wrote my first article for Homiletic & Pastoral Review (HPR) entitled "The Desecration of Catholicism" where I exposed the deliberate and conspicuous absence of the SACRED, the HOLY in the ICEL translation of the Sacramentary we have had since 1970. Priests and parishioners are begging and pleading with our bishops to RESTORE holiness to our liturgical language. Lex orandi, lex credendi shows us that pedestrian prayers dilute doctrine. Yet, the arguments we hear and see in the media while the USCCB has its summer meeting focuses on a few instances of what some call archaic verbiage. This is a red herring. The real consternation lies with the vapid and vacuous vocabulary we see in the English translation of the Ordinary form of the Roman Missal. The typical Latin text, be it 1970 or 2000, uses the word sanctae (holy) in the response of the congregation after the priest says his offertory prayers at the preparation of the gifts: Suscipiat Dominus sacrificum de manibus tuis ad laudem et gloriam nominis sui, at utilitatem quoque nostram totiusque Ecclesiae suae sanctae. ICEL translated that into: May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands for the praise and glory of his name, for our good, and the good of all his Church. Note the obvious omission of the adjective "holy" whereas the typical Latin text uses it to describe the Church (Ecclesiae suae sanctae).

Words like holy, sacred, venerable, blessed, et al. are consistently missing in the English translation of the Latin text of the Missal. Present in the Latin but absent in the vernacular. Why? This is not an issue of archaisms. Nevertheless, why the zealous fervor to render our sacred worship banal? Why are pronouns referring to God no longer capitalized? Why the blatant removal of the adjective "Holy" whenever coupled with Eucharist, Mass, Bible, etc. As one who celebrates Holy Mass daily, I want an ELEGANT and ACCURATE translation of the typical Latin text. I need an English translation that is NOT prosaic or pedestrian. Many of my parishioners do not have post-graduate degrees but they are not so unsophisticated and illiterate that they must be given a translation that insults their intelligence and which will not edify their spirit. God deserves respect and divine worship needs to be REVERENT. Sanitizing liturgical texts of sacred language is self-defeating. Dumbing down insults the People of God. Sacred Liturgy needs a holy vocabulary to inspire the faithful to aspire to holiness. Accurate, elegant and edifying translations of the Roman Missal will fulfill the spiritual needs of the clergy and the faithful. Pretending that we are still on Sesame Street does nothing but erode Catholic worship to the level of bare recognition. No need to use Shakespearean or Elizabethen English, however, colloquial, mundane and hackneyed phrases will make the Sacred Liturgy bland and tasteless. The source and summit of our Christian life deserves BETTER.


HAPPY FATHER'S DAY to all my brother priests
As spiritual fathers to our parishioners
may good Saint Joseph
the head of the Holy Family
and universal patron of the Church
bless and protect you
may God bless every father of a priest today
and may He grant eternal rest
to those departed dads
whom we commend to His Divine Mercy

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